Organic Value Recovery Solutions LLC The Future of Aquafeeds in 2013,  Fishmeal Replacement  with Black Soldier Fly Prepupae A Predictive Report Prepared for the NOAA Aquaculture Programs and the NOAA-USDA Alternative Feeds Initiative May 2008 Prepared by: D. Craig Sheppard, UGA Emeritus Gary Burtle, UGA Assoc. Prof. G. Larry Newton, UGA Assoc. Prof The Future of Aquafeeds in 2013, Fishmeal Replacement with Black Soldier Fly Prepupae Craig Sheppard, University of Georgia Entomology, Gary Burtle, University of Georgia Animal and Dairy Science, Larry Newton, University of Georgia Animal and Dairy Science  Available studies indicate that a complete or partial replacement of fishmeal and fish oil with black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens L.)  prepupae protein and fat will occur rapidly, in the face of decreasing fishmeal supplies.  This will be based on additional research on all aspects of production, processing and utilization of this novel feed.   Feed Efficiency and Growth  A replicated study indicated that complete replacement of fishmeal in channel catfish diets is possible with no decrease in growth or FCR.  In rainbow trout a 25% replacement of fishmeal with prepupae meal gave similar growth.  However, 50% replacement resulted in a significant reduction of growth, indicating a sensitivity to soldier fly prepupae meal at high rates of dietary inclusion.  Both of these studies used whole milled prepupae.  Separation of the cuticle (contains chitin) from the protein and fat of the prepupae will produce a superior feedstuff.  A preliminary analysis indicated that cuticle weight is about 24% of the whole prepupae on a dry matter basis.  Removal of this chitinous material will improve performance and increase the percent of fishmeal that can be replaced in diets for sensitive aquatic animals as well as pay for the cost of removal by sales of the valuable chitin. Production Breakthrough  Development of large scale production of black soldier fly prepupae will require scaling up and refinement of already proven systems.  After large quantities of prepupae are available, byproducts from the production of soldier fly prepupae meal will include chitin, fat, protein concentrates and fine chemicals.  Commercial equipment is, or will be available to separate these product streams and markets exist for the byproducts.   By 2013, large scale production of soldier fly prepupae will be located in close proximity to the major aquaculture producing areas in the nation.  The ability of soldier flies to use a variety of substrates for growth, while producing a consistent product, will makes them the preferred protein production alternative. Species Fed, Designer and Organic Feed  Although plant protein has been shown to provide good growth for aquaculture species, including tilapias and catfish, soldier fly prepupae meal can replace fish meal in high efficiency diets and in the diets of carnivores.  Dietary inclusion of up to 30% can be achieved for most fish and crustacean species.  Development of a soldier fly prepupae meal after the chitin or skin has been removed will allow a higher level of dietary inclusion for sensitive aquaculture species, like rainbow trout.  By 2033, all aquaculture diets will have soldier fly prepupae inclusions levels between 5 and 75%.  Larval fish and crustacean diets will also be greatly impacted by the development of soldier fly prepupae meal due to their higher requirement for animal protein "Designer" and Organic Feeds  Supplementation of substrates for production of "designer" prepupae is highly desirable to increase the amount of omega-3 fatty acids and adapt the final composition to specific needs of aquaculture species.   Diets for brood stock, especially shrimp and marine finfish, will benefit from designer soldier fly prepupae containing high lipid, high omega-3 concentrations.  Designer soldier fly prepupae will not be GMO, and may use substrates of "organic" origin to supply the food stock to produce "organic" and enriched feed-grade protein concentrate.  The unique and controlled nature of soldier fly prepupae production allows for manipulation of the final nutrient composition of the product.  This aspect provides an advantage over many protein products with variable source and manufacturing characteristics that change product composition, including fishmeal, poultry by- product meal, and meat-and-bone meal.    Feed Needed  Aquaculture feeds that include commercial sources of fish meal, estimated on the basis of shrimp, salmonid, catfish and tilapia production, are about seven million tons worldwide.  Base on the SOFIA projections for growth in the industry, 8.7 million tons will be needed in 2013 and 13.5 million tons in 2033.  The amount of soldier fly prepupae meal needed will depend on the dietary inclusion rate and the rate of penetration of this new product into the feed protein market. The projected 10% average dietary inclusion rate and 50% penetration rate, 675,000 tons of soldier fly prepupae meal and protein concentrate will be needed by 2033. Production Possible  Prepupae production from just two previously researched "waste" streams from the U.S. alone can meet the projected needs.  Also, many other feedstock streams and those outside the U.S. can be used.  Production from manure of confined swine in the U.S. alone would be 1.8 million tons of prepupae.  Another more easily accessed feedstock is U.S. brewer grains, which would produce about 500,000 tons of prepupae annually.   Insect Utilization, Nutrients, Antimicrobial  Many populations of wild animals, especially fish, birds, bats, and others, depend upon consumption of insects for a significant part of their nutrition.  Most scientific effort devoted to insects has been aimed at destroying pest species, rather than using beneficial species.  This vast production potential of insects will finally be used in support of the human food chain by developing the commercial production of Hermetia to feed our farmed fish.  The composition of whole unseperated Hermetia prepupae meal is about 42% protein, 35% lipid, 5% calcium, 1.5% phosphorus, 3.4% lysine, and 1% methionine/cystine.  Interestingly, Hermetia meal lipids contain about 54% lauric acid which has been shown to be active against lipid coated viruses, including HIV virus, measles virus, clostridium, and many pathogenic protozoa.  The high quality and unique characteristics of Hermetia meal will have many uses in the aquaculture and other animal industries.   Sustainability  Black soldier fly (Hermetia) upgrade lower value materials into a source of animal protein (and lipid) which has a much higher value, especially as an ingredient in diets for fish.  When these lower value resources (such as waste food, by-products of the alcoholic beverage or ethanol industry, or animal manure) are consumed by Hermetia, the process also serves as a treatment that reduces the volume and nutrient content of the starting material.  This is especially important, for increasing sustainability, in the case of animal manures (which are often produced in excess of local demand) and materials that would otherwise end up in landfills.  Hermetia production will be sustainable in that it uses underutilized materials and, in turn, it increases the sustainability of the endeavors producing these materials. The demands of the U.S. economic system which favors large scale production, established supply chains, and centralized distribution; puts distributed production (which is often more sustainable and usually the place of new commodities), at a distinct disadvantage.  Systems of distributed production usually develop to supply a specialty market.  The aquaculture feed industry will be enough of a specialty market to support the development of Hermetia culture into commodity status within 5-10 years.  Other animal industries, that use fish meal, will also benefit from the availability of Hermetia meal.  With sufficient penetration of the feed protein market by Hermetia meal, the demand for wild capture fish meal will move more into line with sustainable harvest. © Organic Value Recovery Solutions 2010 © Organic Value Recovery Solutions 2010