Organic Value Recovery Solutions LLC © Organic Value Recovery Solutions 2010 © Organic Value Recovery Solutions 2010 In nature all organic matter is recycled in a diffuse system.  A dead animal is soon eaten by vertebrate scavengers, or insects, or both.  If it is insects (usually maggots) then these crawl away, pupate and fly off, dispersing the dead animal's nutrients over a large area.  The same things happen to animal feces. Usually specialized insects consume the dung and again, those nutrients are carried away as proteins and fats in their bodies and become high quality food for some larger animal or bird.  In nature, nutrients are rarely concentrated to the point that they become a problem (pollution).  Even early man moved camps often enough to avoid the negatives of the small waste heaps they accumulated. The development of agriculture allowed (even required) that man stay in one place to tend crops.  Cities developed along with their huge dumps.  This development (along with stockpiled food) created a new environment stable enough that the synathropic species of house flies and domestic rats and mice developed.  These pests cannot survive away from mans waste accumulations or food stockpiles. Current civilization with its huge population centers and production centers is creating previously unimaginable concentration of surplus nutrients.  These trends can only be accentuated as the worlds population continues to grow in numbers as well as purchasing power.  A growing middle class in the developing countries is demanding higher quality food including meat, dairy, and aquaculture products further accentuating these trends. The organic "wastes" that can cause problems or be recycling opportunities generally fall into four categories; 1) Food processing and manufacturing waste, 2) Post-consumer food waste (restaurant and household), 3) Manure from confined animal feeding operations, (CAFOs) and  4) Mortalities and offal.  Efficiencies of scale in larger and more concentrated operations benefit all of us in producing abundant, high quality, inexpensive food, but they create new challenges in managing the resulting waste streams.  This is especially true with animal production where train loads of grain are brought into relatively small area of animal production and the surrounding land cannot properly use all the resulting manure for crop production. A general and growing concern for environmental quality mandates that these wastes be handled responsibly, which usually means reuse, composting or land filling. Reuse of nutrient rich wastes is most desirable.  The greatest value is recovered with the least negatives.  This includes using food waste in animal food and manure for crop fertilization. Composting these wastes is a somewhat less efficient use of nutrient rich wastes, but is a good option if direct recycling is not practical. With composting, most nutrients can be recycled through crop fertilization.  If not well managed, composting can produce significant quantities of the greenhouse gases including methane and nitrous oxide.  Land filling nutrient rich wastes is the least desirable, but may be necessary if other methods are not practical.  It is expensive, no nutrient recovery is possible, greenhouse gasses may be produced and finite space is occupied. The OVRSol system offers another very efficient option for quickly recycling industrial quantities of high nutrient putrescent wastes.  Food wastes, moist brewer's grains, swine manure and offal and similar materials are consumed by black soldier fly larvae.  They convert the feedstock "waste" to a 42% protein, 35% fat, shelf-stable feedstuff (dried prepupae) with a good amino acid profile. The migratory prepupae are the desired stage to collect since they will self-harvest, have reached their nutritional maximum and have no gut-fill.  Waste materials are converted to this high quality feedstuff at about a 25% dry matter feed conversion rate.  This feedstuff has shown promise as an alternative to fishmeal and as a blood plasma replacer in baby pig weaning diets . Replacement of these $1000-$1200 per ton commodities has been with the whole, ground, dried prepupae.  Separation of the raw insect product into protein, fats and chitin will allow better diet formulation and enhance feeding performance and total value. The spent residue from larval rearing is made up of larvae feces, shed skins and small bits of the waste too tough for the larvae to shred and ingest.  This low odor, stable material is useful as an organic fertilizer or soil amendment.  A study at NCSU where soldier fly larvae digested swine manure compared the residue to vermicomposted swine manure. The OVRsol process can turn problematic, putrescent waste streams into a high value stable feedstuff.  The nutrient dense, stable dried prepupae can easily be shipped economically to distant markets to relieve local nutrient surpluses. A waste stream of about 100,000 tons/yr can be processed into high value prepupae and a stable residue in a 225,000 square foot plant.    Sustainable Food - Efficient Recycling