Organic Value Recovery Solutions LLC © Organic Value Recovery Solutions 2010 © Organic Value Recovery Solutions 2010 NOAA/USDA Pick BSF Process In their Alternative Feeds Initiative, The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)/USDA  stakeholders picked the BSF process as one of the top three environmentally-responsible technologies as an alternative to wild-caught fish protein. There were 3 technologies that were tied for first, one of which was the Black Soldier Fly insect meal. You can find the reference on Page 62 of the NOAA-USDA Future of Aquafeeds report. The report states: Key metrics included: Economics and logistics of alternative ingredients Processing characteristics of alternative ingredients Supply and supply efficiencies Contaminants in all ingredients Public perception and production acceptability Immunostimulants Fish health-probiotics Environmental impact Sustainability Carbon Footprint The top priority feedstuffs identified to explore were (several tied for 1st, 2nd and 3rd place): 1. Poultry byproducts 1. Industrial and food byproducts, coproducts 1. Insects and insect meals (e.g. soldier fly)" Also in that report are the comments from Dr. Sheppard, Newton and Burtle regarding Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens) production (see page 72), which were included by NOAA in the final report. Energy Inputs Regarding energy inputs between harvesting protein fish in the ocean and producing larvae, there's a few areas where larvae are superior: the energy required to produce larvae vs. harvesting and the drying of the material for fish feed: Energy Savings Using SF meal as a fishmeal replacer will save energy (petroleum) in three distinct ways:  1. Purse seining of menhaden (for fish meal) in the Gulf of Mexico takes over one vessel-ton-week to harvest one metric ton of 25% dry matter menhaden (Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission, 2002, Menhaden Management Plan).  SF production would be much less energy intensive. 2. SF prepupae (44% dry matter) require less energy to dry than 25% dry matter menhaden. 3. SF production, unlike fishmeal, is not tied to coastal locations.  Production can be located near the source of the feedstock or near the end-use of the SF product, thus reducing transport costs compared to fish meal.